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雅思口语考官分析不同分数等级的答案(完整版)

发表时间: 2018-12-03 17:41:02   100人浏览

《雅思口语考官分析不同分数等级的答案》请大家耐心阅读,这篇文章我阅读了两次,觉得很有用,所以分享给大家,尤其是正在自学英语口语考试,或者已经考过一次但是成绩不理想的同学。

IELTS Speaking Criteria

There are four parts to the IELTS marksscheme:

1. Fluency and Coherence (流利度和连贯性)

2. Lexical Resource (词汇资源)

3. Grammatical Range and Accuracy (语法跨度和准确度)

4. Pronunciation (发音)

Don’t worry if you don’t know exactlywhat these are; we will look at each of them in detail and give you astep-by-step guide on how to satisfy each of them.

Fluency (流利度)

Fluency refers to your ability to speak smoothly and at an appropriate speed, without any unnatural pauses. This is an area that is often misunderstood by students to mean that you just talk as fast as you possibly can or talking without pausing. If you listen to how native speakers talk they don’t normally talk very fast and there are plenty ofpauses. This is totally acceptable, you just don’t want to pause more than normal.

(不能有不合适的停顿,也不是说得快就好;)

Here is an example of a student who tries to talk too fast…… (ignore the band 8 suggestion in the video, this is aschool trying to promote themselves and actually not a good example). 这个案例,大家忽略8分的标题,因为这个是为了鼓励学生的~

*Fluency Criteria (流利度评分描述)

Band 5 students typically use ‘slow speech and repetition’ and often have problems when asked to talk about more complex issues. What leads to this ‘slow speech and repetition’ is often caused by students not being able to think of the correct grammar or vocabulary to explain themselves, so the better your general level of English the less likely you are to have problems in this area.

(语速慢,内容重复。通常是由于大家在思考语法或在找合适的单词,所以考官会把这类同学划分为语言不流利。)

If we go up the bands to band 7 we can see that this person does not have these repetitions and their speech is natural and smooth because they are not searching for language.

(7分以上的答案,答题者比较少停顿去搜索用什么单词。)

Common Problems

1. The main problem is students worrying too much about grammar and vocabulary and this slowing and stopping theirspeech to an unnatural pace. In your own language you do not have to think as much as you do in English and this leads to a very smooth and regular pattern of words. In English, especially in a test, you are often searching for the perfect word or phrase and this causes problems. (词汇语法熟练的话,就会影响大家发挥)

Solution– what works best for my students is to record themselves once focusing on grammar and vocabulary and then again talking about the same thing but not worrying about making mistakes. They often find that they actually sounded clearer the second time around. You should do this regularly when reviewing what you have studied that day. Practice talking at a normal speed without thinking about making grammar mistakes and your fluency will gradually improve. (第一次录音,尤其注意一下自己的语法和词汇,然后再录第二次音,尝试常语速聊天。反复练习。)

2. Another common problem is misunderstanding what fluency actually is. Fluency is not the ability to talk ‘fast’. If you listen to how native speakers actually talk, they do not try totalk as quickly as possible and you should avoid doing this. Some students practice speaking as quickly as possible and this sounds very unnatural and will lose you marks because it is difficult to understand. (语速快不代表你语言熟练,大家要注意语意的停顿,让听的人能够更容易理解。)

Solution– Understand that being fluent is about talking a natural speed and not very quickly.

*Coherence (连贯性)

Coherence literally means being logical and consistent. For the IELTS speaking criteria this refers to how you expand and explain your answers with explanations and examples, answer the question being asked and how you connect sentences together using discourse markers and tenses. (coherence 的意思是逻辑和连贯性。是否用了合适的例子去解释自己的观点,是否用了合适的时态和连接词。)

Simply it means that when the examiner asks you a question they clearly understand your answer and you have answered the question fully.

Discourse markers- or linking words or cohesive devices as some people call them- are words that signal to the listener what you are talking about. For example you might want to add an additional point, so you might use a discourse marker like ‘As well as that’ or‘On top of that’. If you wanted to give an example you might say ‘For example’or ‘For instance’. (discourse markers在文中已经解释了,比如as well as, on top of that...for example...for instance. 这些短语帮助你更连贯的你的表达。)

Coherence Criteria (连贯性)

A band 5 student not only uses these discourse markers, but overuses them. If you listen to how native speakers actually talk, they don’t use these discourse markers in every sentence and many poor IELTS candidates try to insert them into every sentence. This will actually lower your marks and do more harm than good. (5分的回答常常过渡使用这些关联词或承接词。本土人说英语的时候不会每句都带上in my opinion. )

A band 6 student will not overuse discourse markers, but they will use some of them inappropriately i.e. they don’t know the meaning, but use them anyway or get confused about their function. A common mistake is to start off a sentence with ‘In my opinion’ when the rest of the sentence does not actually give their opinion.

Band 7 and 8 students will use discoursemarkers both accurately and appropriately, or in other words, they knowthe meaning and they only use them when necessary.

Coherence is also linked to answering the question properly. This means that you do not give very short answers and instead you fully support your answers with explanations and examples when appropriate.

Band 5 students typically only give very short answers and often say the minimum amount required. For example, if the examiner asked you ‘What are the causes of pollution in your hometown.’ the candidate might say something like ‘The main causes are traffic and industry.’ This might be a satisfactory answer in ‘real life’, however, in the IELTS exam you have to show the examiner your level of English. (有时候回答真实,但是缺少更多的细节去展示你对目标语言的应用能力,那么这个答案不是最好的。)

A band 8 studentdevelops topics fully, so if they were asked the same question as above theymight say ‘The main causes are traffic and industry. There are too many carsin our city and the fumes from the exhausts leads to heavy smog, especially during rush hour. There are also lots of motorbikes, which collectively causes more pollution than cars and public transport. Then there is the problem withall the factories in the industrial area belching smoke out 24 hours of day. For instance, there are a number of power stations on the edge of the city that burn coal and produce tonnes of CO2 and other harmful gases every year’ In this answer the candidate has not only stated the causes, but also explained what they are and given examples. (参考八分答案的内容充实度和连关性)

Common Problems

1. The most common problem here is overusing discourse markers and/or using them inappropriately. (不合理和过渡使用语料信号词)

Solution– Make sure you know what each discourse marker actually means and when to use them. You don’t have to learn them all; just a few for each function. Listen to how native speakers talk and count how many times they use them. It will surprise you how little they do. Don’t start every sentence with ‘In my opinion’ and don’t feel like you have to includewords like ‘moreover’ and ‘in addition’, native speakers almost never usethese.

2. Not answering the question is a very frustrating problem for teachers and examiners. Often students answer the question they want rather than the question actually asked. If you don’t answer the question it is very difficult for the examiner to follow what you are saying and your marks will suffer. (不要跑题,不回答考官实际的问题,而是自己阐述,会被扣分的哟。)

Solution– go to YouTube and find some examples of band 7, 8 and 9 students answering questions. Don’tlisten to the questions, just listen to the answers and then try to write yourown questions. This will help you focus on exactly what the examiner is asking. (使用youtube请参考这个文章:如何科学上网-下载观看视频)

Also, when you are in the exam, don’t give memorised answers, answer the question actually asked. (不要背答案!!!但是我个人而言,背答案虽然我是最好的方法,但是对于基础比较差的同学,先背一些答案会帮助大家记单词和练习句子,但是这不代表背的答案可以完全用于考官的问题,总是需要大家理解的考考官的问题,然后适当的举一反三,扣题回答问题是最好的。)

3. The final problem is not giving long enough answers. Many students are not confident and want the test to be over assoon as possible and this results in them giving as short an answer aspossible. Just like the writing test you need to explain what you mean fullyand give examples- where appropriate- to really get the high marks. (回答的问题内容不够丰富。)

Solution– This really depends on what part ofthe speaking test you are in. For part 1 of the speaking test you should try to give answers that are between 2-3 sentences long. Part 2 requires you to speak for between1-2 minutes and if you need help with this please see out speaking part 2 guide. Part 3 answers are normally 3-4sentences long. To extend your answers in part 3, make sure you answer the question and then explain your main points and give relevant examples to support your main points. (part 1 的字数控制在2-3句,避免问一句,答一句的机械式回答,这样考官会觉得你在拓展延伸话题上没有足够的能力,或者像话题终结者。part 2 回答要求在1-2分钟。平时练习的时候建议大家以真题练习,然后计时回答。part 3 通常会是最难的部分,原因是考官会基于前面的答案逐层增加问题难度,所以到了第三题,问题会最难。)

*Lexical Resource (词汇资源)

Lexical resource basically means vocabulary. To do well in this area you need to have a wide ranging vocabulary and use that vocabulary accurately. (准确使用单词并且词汇的多样化,比如名词-形容词,或者同义词替换。)

But what does that mean? Let’s say you are asked to talk about your mobile phone. Some of the words we might use couldbe ‘advanced’, ‘cutting-edge’, ‘outdated’, ‘modern’, ‘useful’, ‘features’,‘apps’, ‘screen’, ‘resolution’, ‘operating system’, ‘user-interface’ and so on.Most of these words are very specific to the topics of mobile phones or technology and enable candidates to give a very clear answer to the examiner.Without these words students will really struggle to give a comprehensive answer about mobile phones.

Band 8 and 9 students have such a wide ranging vocabulary that they can talk about any speaking topic because theyhave the required vocabulary to talk about each of them. (高分的答案可以听到考生丰富准确的词汇使用)

So can you just learn lists of vocabulary and get a 9? No, it is a little more complicated than that. Lots of students learn very long lists of vocabulary and try to use this in the test.The problem with this approach is that students often use these words inappropriately. For example, they might know the word ‘cutting-edge’ but use this to describe a person or a place when it should only really be used to describe technology. If you use words inappropriately it is worse than not using them at all. (准确使用单词,是很考究的。比如cutting-edge不能形容人和地方,cost的主语是物,而不是人。)

Lexical Resource Criteria

If we look at band 5 candidates, they can only use vocabulary with ‘limited flexibility’. This means that theystruggle to talk about a range of topics because they don’t have enough vocabulary. This student might say that their phone has ‘a number of different things’ instead of ‘a range of features.’

Band 6 students have enough vocabulary to talk about most common topics but they have ‘inappropriacies’. This means that they can make their meaning clear by using relevant vocabulary but they make occasional mistakes. An example of inappropriacies would be describing a womanas ‘handsome’ instead of ‘beautiful’ or saying you had a ‘beautiful ‘ weekend instead of an ‘exciting’ or ‘wonderful’ weekend.

Band 7 students have a wide range of vocabulary and can talk clearly about nearly all common topics. Theycan also use some idioms, when appropriate, and can also use collocations correctly, however some small mistakes are still allowed.

Band 8 students can talk about all common topics and use a wide range of words accurately. They make very few mistakes when it comes to using vocabulary correctly and often use less common words and phrases.

Common Problems

1. The most common problem is trying to use vocabulary you are not 100% sure about. Many students try to insert long, complicated words into their speaking test in the hope that this will get them a high score. Unfortunately, you have to use words accurately or you will lose marks. Using lots of less common words inappropriately is one of the sign ssomeone has a very limited vocabulary.

Solution– Follow the 100% rule. Only use wordsthat you are 100% sure about. You should know the meaning, the grammar, collocations, synonyms and antonyms of this word, as well as what contextit should be used in. If you don’t know all of these, don’t use it. It is better to use simpler vocabulary and make no mistakes than use very high level vocabulary that is wrong.

2. Not having a wide ranging vocabulary. Some students just don’t knowenough words to get the higher bands for lexical resource.

Solution– Buy a notebook to write any new wordsyou hear or read. Record them with meanings, synonyms, antonyms, grammar,pronunciation, pictures, example sentences etc. or whatever you think will helpyou remember them. Make sure you regularly review these words one week, twoweeks and one month after you first record them. Try to read and listen to asmuch English as you can. When you hear a new word, record it.

Grammatical Range and Accuracy

This part of the IELTS Speaking Criteria refers to your ability to avoid making grammar mistakes. You should also have awide enough range of grammar to be able to talk about a range of things and usecomplex sentences.

Please take a look at our guide on how to write a complex sentence if you are unfamiliar with them. (这个连接大家可以点击阅读原文然后看更多细节)

For example, the examiner might ask you to talk about the past and future and you will therefore need to be able to use past tenses and future structures. However, it is not just about tenses, although these are very important. You also need to be aware of different types of functional language, such as how to give your opinion, explain something, talk hypothetically and compare and contrast ideas.

Grammatical Range and Accuracy Criteria

Band 5 answers normally consist of simple sentences that are relatively error free; however band 5 candidates make frequent mistakes when attempting more complex sentences. When trying to usemore advanced structures they often makes grammar mistakes that stop the examiner understanding the meaning of the sentence.

Band 6 answers use a mix of complex and simplesentences but mistakes are made more than 50% of the time. The mistakestend to be small mistakes that don’t stop the examiner understanding what isbeing said.

Band 7 answers use a variety of complex structures and more than 50% of sentences have no errors at all. There are still some grammar mistakes but these tend to be minor.

Band 8 answers use a wide range ofcomplex structures and appropriate functional language. Most sentences are error-free.

Common Problems

1. The biggest problem is students tryingto use grammar structures or functional language they are not sure about. Thisresults in big errors and your sentences not being very clear.

Solution– Like vocabulary, use the 100% rule-only make a sentence when you are sure it is 100% correct. It is better to write a simple sentence that is correct, than a complex sentence with lots of big mistakes.

2. The second main problem is making small careless mistakes. Most students make these mistakes that are totally avoidable and they can easily correct themselves. Remember that you can’t get over a 7for grammar if more than 50% of your sentences have mistakes in them.

Solution– You should identify your common grammar mistakes.Have a teacher or native speaker listen to you speak and it will soon become clear that you have a few things that you consistently get wrong. You can thenwork on improving these.

*Pronunciation

You don’t have to worry about having an American or British accent, the main consideration here is that your speech is clear and you are easy to understand. (不要过分关注美音还是英音,即使你有口音,但是你断句正确,用词准确,听的人可以很清楚的理解你传递的信息,那么这个答案就是好的。)

There are many aspects to pronunciation that you should try to use in order to get a high mark.

The most important one is at word level-is it easy for the examiner to understand the individual words you are saying? If you are not familiar with phonemes and the phonemic chart (phonemes就是发音很像但是意思不同的单词,比如here和hear)you should definitely check it out. Each language uses different tongue, jaw and lip movements and some of the ones we use in English can be very strange forother languages. If there is a certain sound that you struggle to make in English, it will sometimes be difficult for the examiner to understand what you are saying.

Each word in English also has a particular stress pattern and this can have an effect on your intelligibility. (intelligibility的意思就是how fast the listener can understand your words. )

At sentence level you also need toconsider:

· Sentence stress (certain words being emphasised in a sentence)

· Weak sounds (certain words sound weaker than normal in asentence)

· Intonation (the rise and fall in pitchor tone)

· Linking words (how certain words connect with one another)

Pronunciation Criteria

A band 6 student cangenerally be understood but there are times the examiner finds it difficult to understand what is being said because of pronunciation errors. Some of thepronunciation features described above are used but not throughout the test and there are some mistakes when using them.

A band 7 student ‘showsall the positive features of band 6 and some, but not all, of the positive features of band 8.’

A band 8 student isvery easy to understand throughout the exam and individual words are very rarely mispronounced. They use all of the features described above bothaccurately and appropriately with only occasional mistakes.

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